Mueang Thanyaburi was built by order of King Rama V in 1901. The city name translates to Rice City. At the same time, King Rama V ordered Minburi (มีนบุรี, Fish City) to be built as its twin city. The province was abolished and incorporated into Pathum Thani in 1932. The district was renamed from Mueang to Rangsit in 1917. In 1938 it was renamed to Thanyaburi.