The history of Sa Kaeo can be traced back for over 4,000 years, starting from the Neolithic – Metal Age with a discovery of artefacts at Ban Khok Makok, Khao Sip Sub-district, Khao Chakan District. In a later period, other antiques were found such as in Aranyaprathet and Ta Phraya Districts, presenting evidence that Sa Kaeo was once an important and prosperous community during the Chenla – Dvaravati Periods with their own civilisation and culture under the kings or rulers who believed in Hinduism, both the Shivaite and Vishnuite sects. It can be observed from the ancient remains and inscriptions in the Pallava script at Prasat Khao Noi, Khao Rang, and Chong Sa Chaeng, etc, especially the Pallava inscription at Prasat Khao Noi, Aranyaprathet District, which has been considered as the oldest piece of evidence discovered in Thailand that states the year of its construction, in approximately the year 637.
Moreover, there were discoveries of evidence reflecting the civilisation during the 10th - 11th centuries within this area such as various Prasats or sanctuaries made of bricks or stone, ceramic kilns, ancient moats which have left traces until the present time, including 2 inscriptions in Prasat Sdok Kok Thom, estimated to date from the 10th century. This Prasat was constructed to be a religious shrine of the God Shiva as stated in the 1st inscription that in 937, King Jayavarman IV had this inscription placed in this Prasat as an announcement prohibiting servants dedicated to this shrine to serve in other businesses, but only take care and conduct a worshipping ceremony to the Shiva Lingam – a Hindu phallic symbol of creative power – or other sacred images enshrined in this Prasat. On the other hand, the other inscription praised the good deeds of King Udayadityavarman II, who had this ancient sanctuary renovated, as well as, finished an inscription on the civilisation and religion. From the aforementioned inscriptions and remains, the system of administration utilised by the Ancient Khmer Empire over the area can be noticed. Therefore, this province can be considered as intellectual heritage which has been passed on and is valuable for further study.
Sa Kaeo covers a total area of approximately 7,195 square km or 4,496,961 rai.

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